Resource - Budget Tracker
My favorite place is Investopedia - it's basically a finance dictionary that tells you what all of these things mean! It would be a bit daunting to go in there and try to read all of them, but if you come across a term you don't know, this is a great place to look it up.
If you're looking for a "Cheat Sheet" of important terms, I prefer this article by US News of 10 Terms Every Investor Should Know, and if you want something a little deeper, try Investor Junkie's 25 Most Common Investing Terms and Definitions. Anything more than that and it's just too far in the weeds :)